Initialize

using Plots
plotly()
Plots.PlotlyBackend()

Lines

A simple line plot of the columns.

plot(Plots.fakedata(50, 5), w = 3)

Parametric plots

Plot function pair (x(u), y(u)).

plot(sin, (x->begin
sin(2x)
end), 0, 2π, line = 4, leg = false, fill = (0, :orange))

Colors

Access predefined palettes (or build your own with the colorscheme method). Line/marker colors are auto-generated from the plot's palette, unless overridden. Set the z argument to turn on series gradients.

y = rand(100)
plot(0:10:100, rand(11, 4), lab = "lines", w = 3, palette = cgrad(:grays), fill = 0, α = 0.6)
scatter!(y, zcolor = abs.(y .- 0.5), m = (:heat, 0.8, Plots.stroke(1, :green)), ms = 10 * abs.(y .- 0.5) .+ 4, lab = "grad")

Global

Change the guides/background/limits/ticks. Convenience args xaxis and yaxis allow you to pass a tuple or value which will be mapped to the relevant args automatically. The xaxis below will be replaced with xlabel and xlims args automatically during the preprocessing step. You can also use shorthand functions: title!, xaxis!, yaxis!, xlabel!, ylabel!, xlims!, ylims!, xticks!, yticks!

using Statistics
y = rand(20, 3)
plot(y, xaxis = ("XLABEL", (-5, 30), 0:2:20, :flip), background_color = RGB(0.2, 0.2, 0.2), leg = false)
hline!(mean(y, dims = 1) + rand(1, 3), line = (4, :dash, 0.6, [:lightgreen :green :darkgreen]))
vline!([5, 10])
title!("TITLE")
yaxis!("YLABEL", :log10)

Images

Plot an image. y-axis is set to flipped

import FileIO
plot(img)

Arguments

Plot multiple series with different numbers of points. Mix arguments that apply to all series (marker/markersize) with arguments unique to each series (colors). Special arguments line, marker, and fill will automatically figure out what arguments to set (for example, we are setting the linestyle, linewidth, and color arguments with line.) Note that we pass a matrix of colors, and this applies the colors to each series.

ys = Vector[rand(10), rand(20)]
plot(ys, color = [:black :orange], line = (:dot, 4), marker = ([:hex :d], 12, 0.8, Plots.stroke(3, :gray)))

Build plot in pieces

plot(rand(100) / 3, reg = true, fill = (0, :green))

scatter!(rand(100), markersize = 6, c = :orange)

Histogram2D

histogram2d(randn(10000), randn(10000), nbins = 20)

Line types

linetypes = [:path :steppre :steppost :sticks :scatter]
n = length(linetypes)
x = Vector[sort(rand(20)) for i = 1:n]
y = rand(20, n)
plot(x, y, line = (linetypes, 3), lab = map(string, linetypes), ms = 15)

Line styles

styles = filter((s->begin
s in Plots.supported_styles()
end), [:solid, :dash, :dot, :dashdot, :dashdotdot])
styles = reshape(styles, 1, length(styles))
n = length(styles)
y = cumsum(randn(20, n), dims = 1)
plot(y, line = (5, styles), label = map(string, styles), legendtitle = "linestyle")

Marker types

markers = filter((m->begin
m in Plots.supported_markers()
end), Plots._shape_keys)
markers = permutedims(markers)
n = length(markers)
x = (range(0, stop = 10, length = n + 2))[2:end - 1]
y = repeat(reshape(reverse(x), 1, :), n, 1)
scatter(x, y, m = markers, markersize = 8, lab = map(string, markers), bg = :linen, xlim = (0, 10), ylim = (0, 10))

Bar

x is the midpoint of the bar. (todo: allow passing of edges instead of midpoints)

bar(randn(99))

Histogram

histogram(randn(1000), bins = :scott, weights = repeat(1:5, outer = 200))

Subplots

Use the layout keyword, and optionally the convenient @layout macro to generate arbitrarily complex subplot layouts.

l = @layout([a{0.1h}; b [c; d e]])
plot(randn(100, 5), layout = l, t = [:line :histogram :scatter :steppre :bar], leg = false, ticks = nothing, border = :none)

Note here the automatic grid layout, as well as the order in which new series are added to the plots.

plot(Plots.fakedata(100, 10), layout = 4, palette = cgrad.([:grays :blues :heat :lightrainbow]), bg_inside = [:orange :pink :darkblue :black])

using Random
Random.seed!(111)
plot!(Plots.fakedata(100, 10))

Open/High/Low/Close

Create an OHLC chart. Pass in a list of (open,high,low,close) tuples as your y argument. This uses recipes to first convert the tuples to OHLC objects, and subsequently create a :path series with the appropriate line segments.

n = 20
hgt = rand(n) .+ 1
bot = randn(n)
openpct = rand(n)
closepct = rand(n)
y = OHLC[(openpct[i] * hgt[i] + bot[i], bot[i] + hgt[i], bot[i], closepct[i] * hgt[i] + bot[i]) for i = 1:n]
ohlc(y)

Annotations

The annotations keyword is used for text annotations in data-coordinates. Pass in a tuple (x,y,text) or a vector of annotations. annotate!(ann) is shorthand for plot!(; annotation=ann). Series annotations are used for annotating individual data points. They require only the annotation... x/y values are computed. A PlotText object can be build with the method text(string, attr...), which wraps font and color attributes.

y = rand(10)
plot(y, annotations = (3, y[3], Plots.text("this is #3", :left)), leg = false)
annotate!([(5, y[5], Plots.text("this is #5", 16, :red, :center)), (10, y[10], Plots.text("this is #10", :right, 20, "courier"))])
scatter!(range(2, stop = 8, length = 6), rand(6), marker = (50, 0.2, :orange), series_annotations = ["series", "annotations", "map", "to", "series", Plots.text("data", :green)])

Contours

Any value for fill works here. We first build a filled contour from a function, then an unfilled contour from a matrix.

x = 1:0.5:20
y = 1:0.5:10
f(x, y) = begin
(3x + y ^ 2) * abs(sin(x) + cos(y))
end
X = repeat(reshape(x, 1, :), length(y), 1)
Y = repeat(y, 1, length(x))
Z = map(f, X, Y)
p1 = contour(x, y, f, fill = true)
p2 = contour(x, y, Z)
plot(p1, p2)

Pie

x = ["Nerds", "Hackers", "Scientists"]
y = [0.4, 0.35, 0.25]
pie(x, y, title = "The Julia Community", l = 0.5)

Groups and Subplots

group = rand(map((i->begin
"group \$(i)"
end), 1:4), 100)
plot(rand(100), layout = @layout([a b; c]), group = group, linetype = [:bar :scatter :steppre], linecolor = :match)

Polar Plots

Θ = range(0, stop = 1.5π, length = 100)
r = abs.(0.1 * randn(100) + sin.(3Θ))
plot(Θ, r, proj = :polar, m = 2)

Heatmap, categorical axes, and aspect_ratio

xs = [string("x", i) for i = 1:10]
ys = [string("y", i) for i = 1:4]
z = float((1:4) * reshape(1:10, 1, :))
heatmap(xs, ys, z, aspect_ratio = 1)

Layouts, margins, label rotation, title location

using Plots.PlotMeasures
plot(rand(100, 6), layout = @layout([a b; c]), title = ["A" "B" "C"], titlelocation = :left, left_margin = [20mm 0mm], bottom_margin = 10px, xrotation = 60)

Spy

For a matrix mat with unique nonzeros spy(mat) returns a colorless plot. If mat has various different nonzero values, a colorbar is added. The colorbar can be disabled with legend = nothing.

using SparseArrays
a = spdiagm(0 => ones(50), 1 => ones(49), -1 => ones(49), 10 => ones(40), -10 => ones(40))
b = spdiagm(0 => 1:50, 1 => 1:49, -1 => 1:49, 10 => 1:40, -10 => 1:40)
plot(spy(a), spy(b), title = ["Unique nonzeros" "Different nonzeros"])

Magic grid argument

The grid lines can be modified individually for each axis with the magic grid argument.

x = rand(10)
p1 = plot(x, title = "Default looks")
p2 = plot(x, grid = (:y, :olivedrab, :dot, 1, 0.9), title = "Modified y grid")
p3 = plot(deepcopy(p2), title = "Add x grid")
xgrid!(p3, :on, :cadetblue, 2, :dashdot, 0.4)
plot(p1, p2, p3, layout = (1, 3), label = "", fillrange = 0, fillalpha = 0.3)

Framestyle

The style of the frame/axes of a (sub)plot can be changed with the framestyle attribute. The default framestyle is :axes.

scatter(fill(randn(10), 6), fill(randn(10), 6), framestyle = [:box :semi :origin :zerolines :grid :none], title = [":box" ":semi" ":origin" ":zerolines" ":grid" ":none"], color = permutedims(1:6), layout = 6, label = "", markerstrokewidth = 0, ticks = -2:2)
┌ Warning: Framestyle :semi is not supported by Plotly and PlotlyJS. :box was chosen instead.
└ @ Plots ~/.julia/packages/Plots/8uFdb/src/backends/plotly.jl:10
┌ Warning: Framestyle :origin is not supported by Plotly and PlotlyJS. :zerolines was chosen instead.
└ @ Plots ~/.julia/packages/Plots/8uFdb/src/backends/plotly.jl:10

Lines and markers with varying colors

You can use the line_z and marker_z properties to associate a color with each line segment or marker in the plot.

t = range(0, stop = 1, length = 100)
θ = (6π) .* t
x = t .* cos.(θ)
y = t .* sin.(θ)
p1 = plot(x, y, line_z = t, linewidth = 3, legend = false)
p2 = scatter(x, y, marker_z = (+), color = :bluesreds, legend = false)
plot(p1, p2)

Portfolio Composition maps

see: http://stackoverflow.com/a/37732384/5075246

using Random
Random.seed!(111)
tickers = ["IBM", "Google", "Apple", "Intel"]
N = 10
D = length(tickers)
weights = rand(N, D)
weights ./= sum(weights, dims = 2)
returns = sort!((1:N) + D * randn(N))
portfoliocomposition(weights, returns, labels = permutedims(tickers))

Ribbons

Ribbons can be added to lines via the ribbon keyword; you can pass a tuple of arrays (upper and lower bounds), a single Array (for symmetric ribbons), a Function, or a number.

plot(plot(0:10; ribbon = (LinRange(0, 2, 11), LinRange(0, 1, 11))), plot(0:10; ribbon = 0:0.5:5), plot(0:10; ribbon = sqrt), plot(0:10; ribbon = 1))

Histogram2D (complex values)

n = 10000
x = exp.(0.1 * randn(n) .+ randn(n) .* im)
histogram2d(x, nbins = (20, 40), show_empty_bins = true, normed = true, aspect_ratio = 1)

Unconnected lines using missing or NaN

Missing values and non-finite values, including NaN, are not plotted. Instead, lines are separated into segments at these values.

(x, y) = ([1, 2, 2, 1, 1], [1, 2, 1, 2, 1])
plot(plot([rand(5); NaN; rand(5); NaN; rand(5)]), plot([1, missing, 2, 3], marker = true), plot([x; NaN; x .+ 2], [y; NaN; y .+ 1], arrow = 2), plot([1, 2 + 3im, Inf, 4im, 3, -Inf * im, 0, 3 + 3im], marker = true), legend = false)

Lens

A lens lets you easily magnify a region of a plot. x and y coordinates refer to the to be magnified region and the via the inset keyword the subplot index and the bounding box (in relative coordinates) of the inset plot with the magnified plot can be specified. Additional attributes count for the inset plot.

begin
plot([(0, 0), (0, 0.9), (1, 0.9), (2, 1), (3, 0.9), (80, 0)], legend = :outertopright)
plot!([(0, 0), (0, 0.9), (2, 0.9), (3, 1), (4, 0.9), (80, 0)])
plot!([(0, 0), (0, 0.9), (3, 0.9), (4, 1), (5, 0.9), (80, 0)])
plot!([(0, 0), (0, 0.9), (4, 0.9), (5, 1), (6, 0.9), (80, 0)])
lens!([1, 6], [0.9, 1.1], inset = (1, bbox(0.5, 0.0, 0.4, 0.4)))
end

Array Types

Plots supports different Array types that follow the AbstractArray interface, like StaticArrays and OffsetArrays.

begin
using StaticArrays, OffsetArrays
sv = SVector{10}(rand(10))
ov = OffsetVector(rand(10), -2)
plot([sv, ov], label = ["StaticArray" "OffsetArray"])
plot!(3ov, ribbon = ov, label = "OffsetArray ribbon")
end

Setting defaults and font arguments

begin
using Plots
default(titlefont = (20, "times"), legendfontsize = 18, guidefont = (18, :darkgreen), tickfont = (12, :orange), guide = "x", framestyle = :zerolines, yminorgrid = true)
plot([sin, cos], -2π, 2π, label = ["sin(θ)" "cos(θ)"], title = "Trigonometric Functions", xlabel = "θ", linewidth = 2, legend = :outertopleft)
end

Heatmap with DateTime axis

begin
using Dates
z = rand(5, 5)
x = DateTime.(2016:2020)
y = 1:5
heatmap(x, y, z)
end

begin
x = -5:0.1:5
plot(plot(x, (x->begin
x ^ 2
end)), plot(x, (x->begin
sin(x)
end)), layout = 2, link = :y)
end

Error bars and array type recipes

begin
struct Measurement <: Number
val::Float64
err::Float64
end
value(m::Measurement) = begin
m.val
end
uncertainty(m::Measurement) = begin
m.err
end
@recipe function f(::Type{T}, m::T) where T <: AbstractArray{<:Measurement}
if !(get(plotattributes, :seriestype, :path) in [:contour, :contourf, :contour3d, :heatmap, :surface, :wireframe, :image])
error_sym = Symbol(plotattributes[:letter], :error)
plotattributes[error_sym] = uncertainty.(m)
end
value.(m)
end
x = Measurement.(10 * sort(rand(10)), rand(10))
y = Measurement.(10 * sort(rand(10)), rand(10))
z = Measurement.(10 * sort(rand(10)), rand(10))
surf = Measurement.((1:10) .* (1:10)', rand(10, 10))
plot(scatter(x, [x y]), scatter(x, y, z), heatmap(x, y, surf), wireframe(x, y, surf), legend = :topleft)
end

Tuples and Points as data

using GeometryBasics
using Distributions
d = MvNormal([1.0 0.75; 0.75 2.0])
plot([(1, 2), (3, 2), (2, 1), (2, 3)])
scatter!(Point2.(eachcol(rand(d, 1000))), alpha = 0.25)

Mesh3d

Allows to plot arbitrary 3d meshes. If only x,y,z are given the mesh is generated automatically.
You can also specify the connections using the connections keyword.
The connections are specified using a tuple of vectors. Each vector contains the 0-based indices of one point of a triangle,
such that elements at the same position of these vectors form a triangle.
x = [0, 1, 2, 0]
y = [0, 0, 1, 2]
z = [0, 2, 0, 1]
i = [0, 0, 0, 1]
j = [1, 2, 3, 2]
k = [2, 3, 1, 3]
mesh3d(x, y, z; connections = (i, j, k))

Vectors of markershapes and segments

using Base.Iterators: cycle, take
yv = ones(9)
ys = [1; 1; NaN; ones(6)]
y = 5 .- [yv 2ys 3yv 4ys]
plt_color_rows = plot(y, seriestype = [:path :path :scatter :scatter], markershape = collect(take(cycle((:utriangle, :rect)), 9)), markersize = 8, color = collect(take(cycle((:red, :black)), 9)))
plt_z_cols = plot(y, markershape = [:utriangle :x :circle :square], markersize = [5 10 10 5], marker_z = [5 4 3 2], line_z = [1 3 3 1], linewidth = [1 10 5 1])
plot(plt_color_rows, plt_z_cols)
┌ Warning: markershape x is unsupported with Plots.PlotlyBackend().  Choose from: [:none, :auto, :circle, :rect, :diamond, :utriangle, :dtriangle, :cross, :xcross, :pentagon, :hexagon, :octagon, :vline, :hline]
└ @ Plots ~/.julia/packages/Plots/8uFdb/src/args.jl:1248

3d quiver

using Plots
ϕs = range(-π, π, length = 50)
θs = range(0, π, length = 25)
θqs = range(1, π - 1, length = 25)
x = vec([sin(θ) * cos(ϕ) for (ϕ, θ) = Iterators.product(ϕs, θs)])
y = vec([sin(θ) * sin(ϕ) for (ϕ, θ) = Iterators.product(ϕs, θs)])
z = vec([cos(θ) for (ϕ, θ) = Iterators.product(ϕs, θs)])
u = 0.1 * vec([sin(θ) * cos(ϕ) for (ϕ, θ) = Iterators.product(ϕs, θqs)])
v = 0.1 * vec([sin(θ) * sin(ϕ) for (ϕ, θ) = Iterators.product(ϕs, θqs)])
w = 0.1 * vec([cos(θ) for (ϕ, θ) = Iterators.product(ϕs, θqs)])
quiver(x, y, z, quiver = (u, v, w))

Step Types

A comparison of the various step-like seriestypes

x = 1:5
y = [1, 2, 3, 2, 1]
default(shape = :circle)
plot(plot(x, y, markershape = :circle, seriestype = :steppre, label = "steppre"), plot(x, y, markershape = :circle, seriestype = :stepmid, label = "stepmid"), plot(x, y, markershape = :circle, seriestype = :steppost, label = "steppost"), layout = (3, 1))

Guide positions and alignment

plot(rand(10, 4), layout = 4, xguide = "x guide", yguide = "y guide", xguidefonthalign = [:left :right :right :left], yguidefontvalign = [:top :bottom :bottom :top], xguideposition = :top, yguideposition = [:right :left :right :left], ymirror = [false true true false], xmirror = [false false true true], legend = false, seriestype = [:bar :scatter :path :stepmid])

• Supported arguments: annotations, aspect_ratio, background_color, background_color_inside, background_color_legend, background_color_outside, background_color_subplot, bar_width, bins, bottom_margin, camera, clims, color_palette, colorbar, colorbar_entry, colorbar_title, contour_labels, discrete_values, fill_z, fillalpha, fillcolor, fillrange, flip, foreground_color, foreground_color_axis, foreground_color_border, foreground_color_grid, foreground_color_guide, foreground_color_legend, foreground_color_subplot, foreground_color_text, foreground_color_title, framestyle, grid, gridalpha, gridlinewidth, group, guide, guidefont, guidefontcolor, guidefontfamily, guidefontsize, hover, html_output_format, inset_subplots, label, layout, left_margin, legend, legendfont, legendfontcolor, legendfontfamily, legendfontsize, levels, lims, line_z, linealpha, linecolor, linestyle, linewidth, link, margin, marker_z, markeralpha, markercolor, markershape, markersize, markerstrokealpha, markerstrokecolor, markerstrokestyle, markerstrokewidth, normalize, orientation, polar, primary, projection, quiver, ribbon, right_margin, rotation, scale, series_annotations, seriesalpha, seriescolor, seriestype, show, show_empty_bins, size, smooth, subplot, subplot_index, tick_direction, tickfont, tickfontcolor, tickfontfamily, tickfontsize, ticks, title, titlefontcolor, titlefontfamily, titlefonthalign, titlefontsize, titlefontvalign, titlelocation, top_margin, weights, window_title, x, xdiscrete_values, xerror, xflip, xforeground_color_axis, xforeground_color_border, xforeground_color_grid, xforeground_color_guide, xforeground_color_text, xgrid, xgridalpha, xgridlinewidth, xguide, xguidefontcolor, xguidefontfamily, xguidefontsize, xlims, xlink, xrotation, xscale, xtick_direction, xtickfontcolor, xtickfontfamily, xtickfontsize, xticks, y, ydiscrete_values, yerror, yflip, yforeground_color_axis, yforeground_color_border, yforeground_color_grid, yforeground_color_guide, yforeground_color_text, ygrid, ygridalpha, ygridlinewidth, yguide, yguidefontcolor, yguidefontfamily, yguidefontsize, ylims, ylink, yrotation, yscale, ytick_direction, ytickfontcolor, ytickfontfamily, ytickfontsize, yticks, z, zdiscrete_values, zerror, zflip, zforeground_color_axis, zforeground_color_border, zforeground_color_grid, zforeground_color_guide, zforeground_color_text, zgrid, zgridalpha, zgridlinewidth, zguide, zguidefontcolor, zguidefontfamily, zguidefontsize, zlims, zlink, zrotation, zscale, ztick_direction, ztickfontcolor, ztickfontfamily, ztickfontsize, zticks
• Supported values for linetype: :contour, :heatmap, :mesh3d, :path, :path3d, :scatter, :scatter3d, :scattergl, :shape, :straightline, :surface, :wireframe
• Supported values for linestyle: :auto, :dash, :dashdot, :dot, :solid
• Supported values for marker: :auto, :circle, :cross, :diamond, :dtriangle, :hexagon, :hline, :none, :octagon, :pentagon, :rect, :utriangle, :vline, :xcross

(Automatically generated: 2021-06-17T07:38:23.162)