Backends are the lifeblood of Plots, and the diversity between features, approaches, and strengths/weaknesses was one of the primary reasons that I started this package.

For those who haven't had the pleasure of hacking on 15 different plotting APIs: first, consider yourself lucky. However, you will probably have a hard time choosing the right backend for your task at hand. This document is meant to be a guide and introduction to make that choice.

At a glance

My favorites: GR for speed, Plotly(JS) for interactivity, UnicodePlots for REPL/SSH and PyPlot otherwise.

If you require...then use...
featuresPyPlot, Plotly(JS), GR
speedGR, UnicodePlots, InspectDR, Gaston
interactivityPlotly(JS), PyPlot, InspectDR
beautyPlotly(JS), PGFPlots/ PGFPlotsX
REPL plottingUnicodePlots
3D plotsPyPlot, GR, Plotly(JS), Gaston
a GUI windowGR, PyPlot, PlotlyJS, InspectDR
a small footprintUnicodePlots, Plotly
backend stabilityGaston
plot+data -> .hdf5 fileHDF5

Of course this list is rather subjective and nothing in life is that simple. Likely there are subtle tradeoffs between backends, long hidden bugs, and more excitement. Don't be shy to try out something new !


The default backend. Very fast with lots of plot types. Still actively developed and improving daily.


  • Speed
  • 2D and 3D
  • Standalone or inline


  • Limited interactivity

Primary author: Josef Heinen (@jheinen)

Fine tuning

It is possible to use more features of GR via the extra_kwargs mechanism.

using Plots; gr()

x = range(-3, 3, length=30)
  x, x, (x, y)->exp(-x^2 - y^2), c=:viridis, legend=:none,
  nx=50, ny=50, display_option=Plots.GR.OPTION_SHADED_MESH,  # <-- series[:extra_kwargs]

Supported :subplot :extra_kwargs

legend_hfactorVertical spacing factor for legends

Supported :series :extra_kwargs

Series TypeKeywordDescription
:surfacenxNumber of interpolation points in the x direction
:surfacenyNumber of interpolation points in the y direction
:surface, :wireframedisplay_optionsee GR doc

Plotly / PlotlyJS

These are treated as separate backends, though they share much of the code and use the Plotly JavaScript API. plotly() is the only dependency-free plotting option, as the required JavaScript is bundled with Plots. It can create inline plots in IJulia, or open standalone browser windows when run from the Julia REPL.

plotlyjs() is the preferred option, and taps into the great functionality of Spencer Lyon's PlotlyJS.jl. Inline IJulia plots can be updated from any cell... something that makes this backend stand out. From the Julia REPL, it taps into Blink.jl and Electron to plot within a standalone GUI window... also very cool. Also, PlotlyJS supports saving the output to more formats than Plotly, such as EPS and PDF, and thus is the recommended version of Plotly for developing publication-quality figures.



  • No custom shapes
  • JSON may limit performance

Primary PlotlyJS.jl author: Spencer Lyon (@spencerlyon2)


Plotly needs to load MathJax to render LaTeX strings, therefore passing extra keywords with extra_kwargs = :plot is implemented. With that it is possible to pass a header to the extra include_mathjax keyword. It has the following options:

  • include_mathjax = "" (default): no mathjax header
  • include_mathjax = "cdn" include the standard online version of the header
  • include_mathjax = "<filename?config=xyz>" include a user-defined file

These can also be passed using the extra_plot_kwargs keyword.

using LaTeXStrings
plot(1:4, [[1,4,9,16]*10000, [0.5, 2, 4.5, 8]],
           labels = [L"\alpha_{1c} = 352 \pm 11 \text{ km s}^{-1}";
                     L"\beta_{1c} = 25 \pm 11 \text{ km s}^{-1}"] |> permutedims,
           xlabel = L"\sqrt{(n_\text{c}(t|{T_\text{early}}))}",
           ylabel = L"d, r \text{ (solar radius)}",
           yformatter = :plain,
           extra_plot_kwargs = KW(
               :include_mathjax => "cdn",
               :yaxis => KW(:automargin => true),
               :xaxis => KW(:domain => "auto")

Fine tuning

It is possible to add additional arguments to the plotly series and layout dictionaries via the extra_kwargs mechanism. Arbitrary arguments are supported but one needs to be careful since no checks are performed and thus it is possible to unintentionally overwrite existing entries.

For example adding customdata can be done the following way scatter(1:3, customdata=["a", "b", "c"]). One can also pass multiple extra arguments to plotly.

pl = scatter(1:3, rand(3),
              extra_kwargs = KW(
                  :series => KW(:customdata => ["a", "b", "c"]),
                  :plot => KW(:legend => KW(:itemsizing => "constant"))


A Julia wrapper around the popular python package PyPlot (Matplotlib). It uses PyCall.jl to pass data with minimal overhead.

<!–FIXME: this example is broken with version GLIBCXX_X.X.XX' not found (conda dependencies)--> <!--$@example backends--> <!--pyplot(); backendplot() #hide--> <!--png("backends_pyplot.png") #hide--> <!--$`–> <!––>


  • Tons of functionality
  • 2D and 3D
  • Mature library
  • Standalone or inline
  • Well supported in Plots


  • Uses Python
  • Dependencies frequently cause setup issues

Primary author: Steven G Johnson (@stevengj)

Fine tuning

It is possible to use more features of PyPlot/matplotlib via the extra_kwargs mechanism. For example, for a 3D plot, the following example should generate a colorbar at a proper location; without the extra_kwargs below, the colorbar is displayed too far right to see its ticks and numbers. The four coordinates in the example below, i.e., [0.9, 0.05, 0.05, 0.9] specify the colorbar location [ left, bottom, width, height ]. Note that for 2D plots, this fine tuning is not necessary.

using Plots; pyplot()

x = y = collect(range(-π, π, length = 100))
fn(x, y) = begin
    3 * exp(-(3x^2 + y^2)/5) * (sin(x+2y))+0.1*randn(1)[1]
surface(x, y, fn, c=:viridis, extra_kwargs=Dict(:subplot=>Dict("3d_colorbar_axis" => [0.9, 0.05, 0.05, 0.9])))

Supported :subplot :extra_kwargs

3dcolorbaraxisSpecifying the colorbar location [ left, bottom, width, height ] for a 3D plot


LaTeX plotting, based on PGF/TikZ.

pdftocairo: /home/runner/.julia/artifacts/b610fc4e040c9a46c250ea4792cc64098003578a/lib/ no version information available (required by /lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/

Successor backend of PGFPlots backend.

Has more features and is still in development otherwise the same.


To add save a standalone .tex file including a preamble use attribute tex_output_standalone = true in your plot command.


  • Nice looking plots
  • Lots of functionality (though the code is still WIP)


  • Tricky to install
  • Heavy-weight dependencies


  • PGFPlots: Christian Feuersanger
  • PGFPlotsX.jl: Kristoffer Carlsson (@KristofferC89), Tamas K. Papp (@tpapp)
  • Plots <–> PGFPlotsX link code: Simon Christ (@BeastyBlacksmith), based on the code of Patrick Kofod Mogensen (@pkofod)

LaTeX workflow

To use the native LaTeX output of the pgfplotsx backend you can save your plot as a .tex or .tikz file.

using Plots; pgfplotsx()
pl  = plot(1:5)
pl2 = plot((1:5).^2, tex_output_standalone = true)
savefig(pl,  "myline.tikz")    # produces a tikzpicture environment that can be included in other documents
savefig(pl2, "myparabola.tex") # produces a standalone document that compiles by itself including preamble

Saving as .tikz file has the advantage, that you can use \includegraphics to rescale your plot without changing the size of the fonts. The default LaTeX output is intended to be included as a figure in another document and will not compile by itself. If you include these figures in another LaTeX document you need to have the correct preamble. The preamble of a plot can be shown using Plots.pgfx_preamble(pl) or copied from the standalone output.

Fine tuning

It is possible to use more features of PGFPlotsX via the extra_kwargs mechanism. By default it interprets every extra keyword as an option to the plot command. Setting extra_kwargs = :subplot will treat them as an option to the axis command and extra_kwargs = :plot will be treated as an option to the tikzpicture environment.

For example changing the colormap to one that is native to pgfplots can be achieved with the following. Like this it is possible to keep the preamble of latex documents clean.

using Plots; pgfplotsx()
surface(range(-3,3, length=30), range(-3,3, length=30),
        (x, y)->exp(-x^2-y^2),
        colormap_name = "viridis",
        extra_kwargs =:subplot)