# Tutorial

This is a guide for getting you up and running with Plots.jl. Its main goal is to introduce you to the terminology used in the package, how to use Plots.jl in common use cases, and put you in a position to easily understand the rest of the manual.

## Basic Plotting: Line Plots

The most basic plots are line plots. Assuming you have installed Plots.jl via Pkg.add("Plots"), you can plot a line by calling plot on two vectors of numbers. For example:

using Plots
x = 1:10; y = rand(10); # These are the plotting data
plot(x, y)

The plot is displayed in a plot pane, a stand-alone window or the browser, depending on the environment and backend (see below).

In Plots.jl, every column is a series, i.e. a set of related points which form lines, surfaces, or other plotting primitives. Thus we can plot multiple lines by plotting a matrix of values and each column is interpreted as a separate line:

x = 1:10; y = rand(10, 2) # 2 columns means two lines
plot(x, y)

Additionally, we can add more lines by mutating the plot object. This is done by the plot! command. Let's add another line to our current plot:

z = rand(10)
plot!(x, z)

Note that we could have done the same as above using an explicit plot variable:

x = 1:10; y = rand(10, 2) # 2 columns means two lines
p = plot(x, y)
z = rand(10)
plot!(p, x, z)

Note that in the case where p is omitted, Plots.jl uses the global Plots.CURRENT_PLOT automatically in the same manner.

## Plot Attributes

In the previous section we made plots... we're done right? No! We need to style our plots. In Plots.jl, the modifiers to plots are called attributes. These are documented at the attributes page. Plots.jl follows a simple rule with data vs attributes: positional arguments are input data, and keyword arguments are attributes. Thus something like plot(x,y,z) is 3-dimensional data for 3D plots, while plot(x,y,attribute=value) is 2-dimensional with an attribute.

As an example, we see that from the attributes page that we can increase the line width using linewidth (or its alias lw), change the legend's labels using the label command, and add a title with title. Let's apply that to our previous plot:

x = 1:10; y = rand(10, 2) # 2 columns means two lines
plot(x, y, title = "Two Lines", label = ["Line 1" "Line 2"], lw = 3)

Note that every attribute can also be applied by mutating the plot with a modifier function. For example, the xlabel attribute adds a label for the x-axis. We can in the plot command specify it via xlabel=... like we did above. Or we can use the modifier function to add it after the plot has already been generated:

xlabel!("My x label")

Every modifier function is the name of the attribute followed by !. Note that this implicitly uses the global Plots.CURRENT_PLOT and we can apply it to other plot objects via attribute!(p,value). For more examples of attributes in action, see the examples pages.

## Plotting Backends

Here's a secret: Plots.jl isn't actually a plotting package! Plots.jl is a plotting metapackage: it's an interface over many different plotting libraries. Thus what Plots.jl is actually doing is interpreting your commands and then generating the plots using another plotting library. This plotting library in the background is referred to as the backend. The nice thing about this is that this means you can use many different plotting libraries all with the Plots.jl syntax, and we'll see in a little bit that Plots.jl adds new features to each of these libraries!

When we started plotting above, our plot used the default backend. The default backend depends on what plotting packages you've installed in Julia. If have not previously installed any backend packages, this will plot to the browser using Plotly, or into the REPL using UnicodePlots.jl. However, let's say we want a standard plotting backend which will plot into a nice GUI or into the plot pane of Juno. To do this, we'll need a backend which is compatible with these features. Some common backends for this are PyPlot and GR. To install these backends, simply use the standard Julia installation (Pkg.add("BackendPackage")). We can specifically choose the backend we are plotting into by using the name of the backend in all lower case as a function. Let's plot the example from above using Plotly and then GR (this assumes you've done Pkg.add("GR")!):

x = 1:10; y = rand(10, 2) # 2 columns means two lines
plotly() # Set the backend to Plotly
# This plots into the web browser via Plotly
plot(x, y, title = "This is Plotted using Plotly") gr() # Set the backend to GR
# This plots using GR
plot(x, y, title = "This is Plotted using GR")

If you're in Juno, the second plot command will cause the plot to open in the plot pane. If you're in the REPL, GR will open a GUI window. You can always open a GUI anyways by using the gui() command.

Each plotting backend has a very different feel. Some have interactivity, some are faster and can deal with huge numbers of datapoints, and some can do 3D plots. Saving plots is done by the savefig command. As an example:

savefig("myplot.png") # Saves the CURRENT_PLOT as a .png
savefig(p, "myplot.pdf") # Saves the plot from p as a .pdf vector graphic

Some like GR can save to vector graphics and PDFs, while others like Plotly only save to .pngs. For more information on backends, see the backends page. For examples of plots from the various backends, see the Examples section.

## Changing the Plotting Series

At this point you're a master of lines, but don't you want to plot your data in other ways? In Plots.jl, these other ways of plotting a series is called a series type. A line is one series type. However, a scatter plot is another series type which is commonly used. We can change the series type by the seriestype attribute:

gr() # We will continue onward using the GR backend
plot(x, y, seriestype = :scatter, title = "My Scatter Plot")

For each built-in series type, there is a shorthand function for directly calling that series type which matches the name of the series type. It handles attributes just the same as the plot command, and have a mutating form which ends in !. For example, we can instead do that scatter plot with:

scatter(x, y, title = "My Scatter Plot")

The series types which are available are dependent on the backend, and are documented on the Supported Attributes page. As we will describe later, other libraries can add new series types via recipes as well.

## Plotting in Scripts

Now that you're making useful plots, go ahead and add these plotting commands to a script. Now call the script... and the plot doesn't show up? This is because Julia in interactive use calls display on every variable that is returned by a command without a ;. Thus in each case above, the interactive usage was automatically calling display on the returned plot objects.

In a script, Julia does not do automatic displays (which is why ; is not necessary). However, if we would like to display our plots in a script, this means we just need to add the display call. For example:

display(plot(x, y))

If we have a plot object p, we can do display(p) at any time.

## Combining Multiple Plots as Subplots

We can combine multiple plots together as subplots using layouts. There are many methods for doing this, and we will show two simple methods for generating simple layouts. More advanced layouts are shown in the Layouts page.

The first method is to define a layout which will split a series. The layout command takes in a 2-tuple layout=(N, M) which builds an NxM grid of plots. It will automatically split a series to be in each plot. For example, if we do layout=(4,1) on a plot with four series, then we will get four rows of plots, each with one series in it:

y = rand(10, 4)
plot(x, y, layout = (4, 1))

We can also use layouts on plots of plot objects. For example, we can generate for separate plots and make a single plot that combines them in a 2x2 grid via the following:

p1 = plot(x, y) # Make a line plot
p2 = scatter(x, y) # Make a scatter plot
p3 = plot(x, y, xlabel = "This one is labelled", lw = 3, title = "Subtitle")
p4 = histogram(x, y) # Four histograms each with 10 points? Why not!
plot(p1, p2, p3, p4, layout = (2, 2), legend = false)

Notice that the attributes in the individual plots are applied to the individual plots, while the attributes on the final plot call are applied to all of the subplots.

## Plot Recipes and Recipe Libraries

You now know all of the basic terminology of Plots.jl and can roam the documentation freely to become a plotting master. However, there is one thing left: recipes. Plotting recipes are extensions to the Plots.jl framework. They add:

1. New plot commands via user recipes.
2. Default interpretations of Julia types as plotting data via type recipes.
3. New functions for generating plots via plot recipes.
4. New series types via series recipes.

Writing your own recipes is an advanced topic described on the recipes page. Instead, we will introduce the ways that one uses a recipe.

Recipes are included in many recipe libraries. Two fundamental recipe libraries are PlotRecipes.jl and StatsPlots.jl. Let's look into StatsPlots.jl. StatsPlots.jl adds a bunch of recipes, but the ones we'll focus on are:

1. It adds a type recipe for Distributions.
2. It adds a plot recipe for marginal histograms.
3. It adds a bunch of new statistical plot series.

Besides recipes, StatsPlots.jl also provides a specialized macro from plotting directly from data tables.

### Using User Recipes

A user recipe says how to interpret plotting commands on a new data type. In this case, StatsPlots.jl thus has a macro @df which allows you to plot a DataFrame directly by using the column names. Let's build a DataFrame with columns a, b, and c, and tell Plots.jl to use a as the x axis and plot the series defined by columns b and c:

# Pkg.add("StatsPlots")
using StatsPlots # Required for the DataFrame user recipe
# Now let's create the DataFrame
using DataFrames
df = DataFrame(a = 1:10, b = 10 * rand(10), c = 10 * rand(10))
# Plot the DataFrame by declaring the points by the column names
@df df plot(:a, [:b :c]) # x = :a, y = [:b :c]. Notice this is two columns!

Notice there's not much you have to do here: all of the commands from before (attributes, series types, etc.) will still work on this data:

@df df scatter(:a, :b, title = "My DataFrame Scatter Plot!") # x = :a, y = :b

### Using a Type Recipe

In addition, StatsPlots.jl extends Distributions.jl by adding a type recipe for its distribution types, so they can be directly interpreted as plotting data:

using Distributions
plot(Normal(3, 5), lw = 3)

Thus type recipes are a very convenient way to plot a specialized type which requires no more intervention!

### Using Plot Recipes

StatsPlots.jl adds the marginhist multiplot via a plot recipe. For our data we will pull in the famous iris dataset from RDatasets:

#Pkg.add("RDatasets")
using RDatasets, StatsPlots
iris = dataset("datasets", "iris")
@df iris marginalhist(:PetalLength, :PetalWidth)

Here iris is a Dataframe, using the @df macro on Dataframes described above, we give marginalhist(x, y) the data from the PetalLength and the PetalWidth columns.

This demonstrates two important facts. Notice that this is more than a series since it generates multiple series (i.e. there are multiple plots due to the hists on the top and right). Thus a plot recipe is not just a series but instead something like a new plot command.

### Using Series Recipes

StatsPlots.jl also introduces new series recipes. The key is that you don't have to do anything differently: after using StatsPlots you can simply use those new series recipes as though they were built into the plotting libraries. Let's use the Violin plot on some random data:

y = rand(100, 4) # Four series of 100 points each
violin(["Series 1" "Series 2" "Series 3" "Series 4"], y, leg = false)

and we can add a boxplot on top using the same mutation commands as before:

boxplot!(["Series 1" "Series 2" "Series 3" "Series 4"], y, leg = false)

• PlotThemes.jl allows you to change the color scheme of your plots. For example, theme(:dark) adds a dark theme.